Medicare Advantage

Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (HBPM) Devices
MA07.005c

Policy

AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING

MEDICALLY NECESSARY
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for a 24-hour period or longer is considered medically necessary and, therefore, covered for individuals who meet the following criteria and there is an absence of hypertensive end-organ damage on physical examination and appropriate laboratory testing:
  • Suspected white coat hypertension demonstrated by the following:
    • The individual has an average office blood pressure of systolic blood pressure greater than 130 mmHg but less than 160 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure greater than 80 mmHg but less than 100 mmHg on two separate clinic/office visits, with two separate measurements made at each visit, and blood pressure less than 130/80 mmHg documented on at least two separate blood pressure measurements taken outside the office.
  • Suspected masked hypertension demonstrated by the following:
    • The individual has an average office blood pressure between 120 mmHg and 129 mmHg for systolic blood pressure or between 75 mmHg and 79 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure on two separate clinic/office visits with at least two separate measurements made at each visit and with at least two blood pressure measurements taken outside the office which are ≥130/80 mmHg.

ABPM devices must meet all of the following specifications:
  • Must be capable of producing standardized plots of blood pressure measurements for 24 hours with daytime and night-time windows and normal blood pressure bands demarcated;
  • Must be provided to individuals with oral and written instructions and a test run in the professional provider's office must be performed;
  • Must have output interpreted by the treating professional provider.

NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARY
All other uses for ABPM are considered not medically necessary and, therefore, not covered by the Company because they are not covered by Medicare. Therefore, they are not eligible for reimbursement consideration.

HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING DEVICES

MEDICALLY NECESSARY
Non-automatic home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) devices are considered medically necessary and, therefore, covered for individuals with end-stage renal disease who are receiving home dialysis.

NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARY
All other uses for non-automatic HBPM devices are considered not medically necessary and, therefore, not covered by the Company because they are not covered by Medicare. Therefore, they are not eligible for reimbursement consideration.

NON-COVERED
An automatic HBPM (A4670) device is not covered by the Company because it is an item not covered by Medicare. Therefore, it is not eligible for reimbursement consideration.

REPLACEMENT HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING DEVICES
The Company may determine the reasonable useful lifetime of a specific non-automatic HBPM device based on the manufacturer's recommendation.

In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, the Company may determine the reasonable useful lifetime of a non-automatic HBPM device, but is generally not less than five years. Replacement of one or more of its components (parts) that are necessary for its proper functioning due to misuse, abuse, or failure to adequately maintain or care for the item is excluded from coverage.

REQUIRED DOCUMENTATION

The individual's medical record must reflect the medical necessity for the care provided. These medical records may include, but are not limited to: records from the professional provider's office, hospital, nursing home, home health agencies, therapies, and test reports.

The Company may conduct reviews and audits of services to our members regardless of the participation status of the provider. Medical record documentation must be maintained on file to reflect the medical necessity of the care and services provided. These medical records may include, but are not limited to, records from the professional provider’s office, hospital, nursing home, home health agencies, therapies, and test reports. This policy is consistent with Medicare's documentation requirements, including the following required documentation:

STANDARD WRITTEN ORDER REQUIREMENTS
Before submitting a claim to the Company, the supplier must have on file a timely, appropriate, and complete standard written order for each item billed that is signed and dated by the professional provider who is treating the member. Requesting a provider to sign a retrospective standard written order at the time of an audit or after an audit for submission as an original standard written order, reorder, or updated order will not satisfy the requirement to maintain a timely professional provider order on file.

PROOF OF DELIVERY REQUIREMENTS
Medical record documentation must include a contemporaneously prepared delivery confirmation or member’s receipt of supplies and equipment. The medical record documentation must include a copy of delivery confirmation if delivered by a commercial carrier and a signed copy of delivery confirmation by member/caregiver if delivered by the DME supplier/provider. All documentation is to be prepared contemporaneous with delivery and be available to the Company upon request.

CONSUMABLE SUPPLIES (WHEN APPLICABLE)
The durable medical equipment (DME) supplier must monitor the quantity of accessories and supplies an individual is actually using. Contacting the individual regarding replenishment of supplies should not be done earlier than approximately seven days prior to the delivery/shipping date. Dated documentation of this contact with the individual is required in the individual’s medical record. Delivery of the supplies should not be done earlier than approximately five days before the individual would exhaust their on-hand supply.

For specified DME items, documentation of a face-to-face encounter between the treating professional provider and the individual meeting the above requirements, including an assessment of the individual’s clinical condition supporting the need for the prescribed DME item(s), must be provided to and kept on file by the DME supplier.

If required documentation is not available on file to support a claim at the time of an audit or record request, the durable medical equipment (DME) supplier may be required to reimburse the Company for overpayments.

Guidelines

This policy is consistent with Medicare's coverage criteria. The Company's payment methodology may differ from Medicare.

BENEFIT APPLICATION

Subject to the terms and conditions of the applicable Evidence of Coverage, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is covered under the medical benefits of the Company's Medicare Advantage products when the medical necessity criteria listed in this medical policy are met.

Subject to the terms and conditions of the applicable Evidence of Coverage, non-automatic home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) devices are covered under the medical benefits of the Company’s Medicare Advantage products when the criteria listed in this policy are met. However, services that are identified in this policy as not covered are not eligible for coverage or reimbursement by the Company.

Description

AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING (24-HOUR SPHYGMOMANOMETER)

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) involves the use of a noninvasive device that measures blood pressure in 24-hour cycles (24 hour sphygmomanometer). The device consists of a portable sphygmomanometer attached to a recording device. The ABPM device is fitted to and removed from the individual by a trained technician. The sphygmomanometer inflates at predetermined times, generally every 30 minutes, and the blood pressure recorded at each inflation is stored. The individual performs normal activities while wearing the monitor. The device provides information about blood pressure during daily activities, as well as during sleep.

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is considered more accurate than individual self-monitoring. Therefore, it is generally thought that readings obtained at frequent intervals throughout the day and night would help the professional provider better manage the individual's care. These stored, 24-hour measurements are later interpreted at the professional provider’s office. A clinician is required to interpret the collected data by uploading it onto a computer where device specific programs are used to categorize and analyze the measurements.

The information that ABPM provides, for example, can help a professional provider determine whether an individual is truly hypertensive or is exhibiting white coat hypertension (WCH). WCH is a condition characterized by persistently raised blood pressure in the doctor's office with a normal ambulatory blood pressure. WCH is defined as blood pressure greater than 130/80 mmHg on at least three clinic/office visits, with two separate measurements made at each visit, and blood pressure less than 130/80 mmHg documented on at least two separate blood pressure measurements taken outside the office.

HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING DEVICES

Blood pressure management using HBPM, is an important component for risk management in individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hypertension is highly prevalent among individuals who have ESRD requiring dialysis or a kidney transplant.

The two main types of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) devices are non-automatic and automatic (or electronic). Many of these devices are available for retail purchase, and some have undergone technical validation according to recommended protocols.

References



Agena F, Prado Edos S, PS, et al. Home blood pressure (BP) monitoring in kidney transplant recipients is more adequate to monitor BP than office BP. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26(11):3745-9.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).CMS Manual System. Medicare Claims Processing. Transmittal 109. [CMS Web site]. 02/27/2004. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Transmittals/downloads/R109CP.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2021.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Decision memo for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) (CAG-00067R2). 07/02/2019. Available at:https://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/details/nca-decision-memo.aspx?NCAId=294. Accessed on February 9, 2021.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Medicare Benefit Policy Manual. Chapter 11: End stage renal disease (ESRD). §20.4: Renal dialysis items and services: Eequipment and supplies. [CMS Web site] 01/01/2015. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Manuals/Downloads/bp102c11.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2021.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). National Coverage Determination (NCD). 20.19: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. [CMS Web site]. 07/01/2003. Available at: http://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/details/ncd-details.aspx?NCDId=254&ncdver=2&bc=AgAAgAAAAAAAAA==&. Accessed February 9, 2021.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). National Coverage Determination (NCD). 20.19: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. [CMS Web site]. 07/02/2019. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/details/ncd-details.aspx?NCDId=254&ncdver=3&bc=AgAAgAAAAQAA& . Accessed February 9, 2021.


Cohen J, Townsend RR. White coat and masked hypertension. 11/02/2020. Up to Date. [UpToDate Web site]. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. [via subscription only]. Accessed February 9, 2021.


Evidence of Coverage.

James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: Report from the panel members appointed to the eighth joint national committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311(5):507-520.
Malliara M. The management of hypertension in hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Hippokratia. 2007;11(4):171-174.

National Heritage Insurance Company (NHIC). Noncovered items. [NHIC Web site]. 02/20/2017. Available at: https://med.noridianmedicare.com/web/jadme/topics/noncovered-items. Accessed February 9, 2021.

O'Brien E, Parati G, Stergiou G. Ambulatory blood pressure measurement: What is the international consensus? Hypertension. 2013;62:988-994.

Unger T, Borghi C, Charchar F, et al. 2020 International Society of Hypertension Global Hypertension Practice Guidelines. Hypertens​ion. 2020;75:1334–1357.


Coding

CPT Procedure Code Number(s)
93784, 93786, 93788, 93790

ICD - 10 Procedure Code Number(s)
N/A

ICD - 10 Diagnosis Code Number(s)

AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING (93784, 93786, 93788, 93790) IS MEDICALLY NECESSARY WHEN REPORTED WITH THE FOLLOWING DIAGNOSIS CODES:

R03.0 Elevated blood-pressure reading, without diagnosis of hypertension



HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING DEVICES (A4660, A4663) ARE MEDICALLY NECESSARY WHEN REPORTED WITH THE FOLLOWING DIAGNOSIS CODES:

I12.0 Hypertensive chronic kidney disease with stage 5 chronic kidney disease or end stage renal disease

I13.11 Hypertensive heart and chronic kidney disease without heart failure, with stage 5 chronic kidney disease, or end stage renal disease

I13.2 Hypertensive heart and chronic kidney disease with heart failure and with stage 5 chronic kidney disease, or end stage renal disease

N18.6 End stage renal disease

Z99.2 Dependence on renal dialysis


HCPCS Level II Code Number(s)

MEDICALLY NECESSARY

A4660 Sphygmomanometer/blood pressure apparatus with cuff and stethoscope=

A4663 Blood pressure cuff only

NOT COVERED

A4670 Automatic blood pressure monitor


Revenue Code Number(s)
N/A



Coding and Billing Requirements


Policy History

1/1/2020
1/3/2020
2/24/2021
MA07.005
Medical Policy Bulletin
Medicare Advantage
No