Notification

Lyme Disease: Diagnosis and Intravenous (IV) Antibiotic Therapy


Notification Issue Date: 04/18/2018

This version of the policy will become effective 05/21/2018. Policy language was added to include diagnostic services that are Medically Necessary, the intent of the policy remains unchanged. The following CPT codes have been added to the policy: 96365, 96366, 96367, 96368, 99601, 99602, 0041U, 0042U. The following HCPCS codes have been added to the policy: S9494, S9504.



Medical Policy Bulletin


Title:Lyme Disease: Diagnosis and Intravenous (IV) Antibiotic Therapy

Policy #:06.02.01i

This policy is applicable to the Company’s commercial products only. Policies that are applicable to the Company’s Medicare Advantage products are accessible via a separate Medicare Advantage policy database.


The Company makes decisions on coverage based on Policy Bulletins, benefit plan documents, and the member’s medical history and condition. Benefits may vary based on contract, and individual member benefits must be verified. The Company determines medical necessity only if the benefit exists and no contract exclusions are applicable.

When services can be administered in various settings, the Company reserves the right to reimburse only those services that are furnished in the most appropriate and cost-effective setting that is appropriate to the member’s medical needs and condition. This decision is based on the member’s current medical condition and any required monitoring or additional services that may coincide with the delivery of this service.

This Medical Policy Bulletin document describes the status of medical technology at the time the document was developed. Since that time, new technology may have emerged or new medical literature may have been published. This Medical Policy Bulletin will be reviewed regularly and be updated as scientific and medical literature becomes available. For more information on how Medical Policy Bulletins are developed, go to the About This Site section of this Medical Policy Web site.



Policy

Coverage is subject to the terms, conditions, and limitations of the member's contract.

MEDICALLY NECESSARY

DIAGNOSIS
The following methods for the diagnosis of Lyme disease are considered medically necessary, and therefore, covered for serologic documentation of infection:
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • Western immunoblot (sequential to a positive or indeterminate ELISA result)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--based direct detection, using amplified probe technique, of B. burgdorferiin CSF samples in individuals with a short duration of neurologic symptoms (less than 14 days) during the window between exposure and production of detectable antibodies

THERAPY
Intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy (up to four weeks) is considered medically necessary and, therefore, covered for the treatment of Lyme disease when one or more of the following diagnoses have been established:
  • For a diagnosis of neuroborreliosis (inflammation caused by infection of the central nervous system [CNS]), which is generally found in disseminated Lyme disease as documented by the presence of at least one of the following objective neurologic complications:
    • Lymphocytic meningitis associated with cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities including all of the following:
      • Pleocytosis
      • Increased levels of protein
      • Intrathecal production of B. burgdorferi antibodies in CSF
    • Bell’s palsy or other cranial neuropathy, or peripheral neuropathy, with documented CSF abnormalities (Note: a past medical history of Bell's Palsy is not sufficient.) including all of the following:
      • Pleocytosis
      • Increased levels of protein
      • Intrathecal production of B. burgdorferi antibodies in CSF 
    • Encephalitis or encephalomyelitis with documented CSF abnormalities including all of the following:
      • Pleocytosis
      • Increased levels of protein
      • Intrathecal production of B. burgdorferi antibodies in CSF
    • Radiculopathy
    • Polyneuropathy
  • For a diagnosis of Lyme carditis, when an individual presents with epidemiologic risks, positive serologic findings, and at least one of the following:
    • Positive serologic findings associated with atrioventricular (AV) block
    • PR interval greater than 0.3 seconds
    • Tachyarrhythmias
    • Myopericarditis demonstrated by EKG
    • In addition to one or more of the preceding points, when the results of serologic studies are equivocal, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--based detection of B. burgdorferi in the blood as an adjunct tool when the above criteria are inconclusive.
  • For a diagnosis of severe Lyme arthritis that requires the rapid response of IV antibiotics, when serologic studies are equivocal
  • For a diagnosis of refractory Lyme arthritis that has failed to improve or has worsened after initial antimicrobial treatment, a second course of IV antibiotic treatment may be indicated.

NOT MEDICALLY NECESSARY

IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease is considered not medically necessary and, therefore, not covered in individuals who do not have any of the conditions listed above as covered, or who have any of the following, including, but not limited to:
  • Symptoms that are consistent with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia in the absence of clinical findings suggestive of Lyme disease
  • Seronegative Lyme disease in the absence of CSF antibodies
  • Cranial nerve palsy (e.g., Bell's palsy) without clinical evidence of meningitis
  • Vague systemic symptoms that are present without supporting serologic or CSF studies
  • A positive ELISA that is unconfirmed by a Western immunoblot test
  • An isolated positive serologic test in the setting of multiple negative serologic studies
  • Chronic (six months or greater) subjective symptoms ("post-Lyme syndrome") after receiving recommended antimicrobial treatment regimens for documented Lyme disease

IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease is considered not medically necessary and, therefore, not covered as initial therapy for Lyme arthritis in the absence of coexisting neurologic symptoms.

Repeat or prolonged courses (greater than four weeks) of IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease are considered not medically necessary and, therefore, not covered for all disease entities except for a second course of IV antibiotics as warranted for refractory Lyme arthritis, where a second course may be medically necessary.

EXPERIMENTAL/INVESTIGATIONAL

The following methods for the diagnosis of Lyme disease are considered experimental/investigational and, therefore, not covered because the safety and/or effectiveness of these services cannot be established by review of the available published peer-reviewed literature:
  • PCR infectious agent detection using direct probe technique
  • PCR infectious agent detection, quantification
  • PCR-based detection of B. burgdorferiin the following situations:
    • As a justification for IV antibiotic use beyond four weeks in individuals with persistent symptoms
    • As a technique to follow or measure therapeutic response
  • PCR-based direct detection of B. burgdorferi in urine samples
  • PCR-based genotyping or phenotyping analysis of B. burgdorferi
  • Lyme urine antigen test (LUAT)
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning alone to diagnosis Lyme disease encephalopathy
  • Determination of levels of the B lymphocyte chemoattractant CXCL13
  • Human natural killer-1 (HNK1), also known as Cluster of Differentiation (CD57) Profile
  • Standalone C6 peptide ELISA (i.e., unconfirmed by a Western immunoblot test)
  • Lyme ImmunoBlot IgM
  • Lyme ImmunoBlot IgG

REQUIRED DOCUMENTATION

The individual's medical record must reflect the medical necessity for the care provided. These medical records may include, but are not limited to, records from the professional providers' office, hospital, nursing home, home health agencies, therapies, other health care professionals, and test reports.

The Company may conduct reviews and audits of services to our members, regardless of the
participation status of the provider. All documentation must be made available to the Company upon request. Failure to produce the requested information may result in a denial for the service.

DOCUMENTATION FOR IV ANTIBIOTICS

Documentation of CSF abnormalities is required for suspected CNS infection and neuroborreliosis. Documentation must include all of the following:
  • Evidence of pleocytosis
  • Evidence of intrathecal production of B. burgdorferi antibodies in CSF
  • Evidence of increased protein levels

PCR-based direct detection, using amplified probe technique, of B. burgdorferiin CSF samples may be considered medically necessary and may replace serologic documentation of infection in individuals with a short duration of neurologic symptoms (less than 14 days) during the window between exposure and production of detectable antibodies.

Serologic documentation of infection requires positive or indeterminate ELISA and positive Western immunoblot as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria.
Guidelines

Oral antibiotic therapy is the usual treatment for Lyme disease. Intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy is generally indicated only in individuals who have symptoms and laboratory findings consistent with CNS or peripheral neurologic involvement, those who have heart block, or those who have been diagnosed with Lyme arthritis who have not responded to oral antibiotics.

REFRACTORY LYME ARTHRITIS THAT HAS FAILED TO IMPROVE OR HAS WORSENED AFTER INITIAL ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENT

The slow resolution of inflammation after the initial course of antibiotic therapy should be taken into consideration before initiating retreatment with IV antimicrobial therapy.

POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)

The direct probe technique (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT] code 87475) is not clinically useful due to the small numbers of organisms present. The quantification technique (CPT code 87477) has no clinical role at this time because treatment decisions are not based on the quantification of organisms present. Only the amplified probe technique (CPT code 87476) is used clinically for the detection of B. burgdorferi.

BENEFIT APPLICATION

Subject to the terms and conditions of the applicable benefit contract, IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease is covered under the medical benefits of the Company’s products when the medical necessity criteria listed in this medical policy are met. However, services that are identified in this policy as experimental/investigational or not medically necessary are not eligible for coverage or reimbursement by the Company.

Description

Lyme disease is a multi-system inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi), which is transmitted by the bite of an infected tick, species ixodes. Lyme disease is characterized by stages, with the initial stage of the disease presenting the most common clinical manifestation, a rash known as erythema migrans (EM). This rash is characterized by a red, raised, spreading lesion, with an area of clearing resembling a bull's eye. However, in some cases, EM may be overlooked or absent. Fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, muscle aches (myalgia), and joint aches (arthralgia) are also symptoms of early-stage Lyme disease.

A clinical finding of EM is indicative of Lyme disease. For individuals who do not present with EM and exhibit other non-specific clinical manifestations consistent with Lyme disease, positive serologic assays are used for diagnosis. A confirmed history of ixodes exposure in an endemic area for Lyme disease may assist but does not establish the diagnosis.

The second stage of Lyme disease involves the dissemination of the spirochete to other body systems. Early manifestations of this dissemination may include lymphocytic meningitis, facial palsy, painful radiculoneuritis, atrioventricular nodal block, or migratory musculoskeletal pain. Latent Lyme disease symptoms are manifest months to years after infection by B. burgdorferi. These may include intermittent oligoarthritis (usually of the knee joint), chronic encephalopathy, spinal pain, or distal paresthesias.

Because of their non-specific and overlapping symptoms, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome may be confused with Lyme disease. However, neither fibromyalgia nor chronic fatigue syndrome has been shown to respond to antibiotic therapy.

The vaccine for Lyme disease is no longer available within the United States. It was discontinued by the manufacturer in 2002.

There is no formal definition of post-Lyme disease syndrome, and its pathogenesis is unclear. In untreated individuals, objective manifestations of latent Lyme disease, such as oligoarticular arthritis, may persist for several years. However, there is no evidence that persistent subjective symptoms after antibiotic treatment, sometimes called post-Lyme disease syndrome or chronic Lyme disease, is due to active infection. These symptoms may be related to various self-sustaining inflammatory mechanisms rather than persistent infection. It is recommended that Lyme disease should never be a diagnosis of exclusion to explain puzzling subjective symptoms, particularly when they are not accompanied by objective markers of organ damage and/or inflammation (Feder 2007).

According to the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines, most early manifestations of Lyme disease are treated successfully with the appropriate oral antibiotics: doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime axetil. Intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy is usually reserved for individuals who present with neurologic and/or cardiac symptomatology. Subsequent paragraphs describe the various manifestations of Lyme disease that usually necessitate IV antibiotic therapy.

CARDIAC MANIFESTATIONS OF LYME DISEASE

Lyme carditis in the early disseminated stage may appear as atrioventricular heart block, tachyarrhythmia, or myopericarditis. An individual may present with symptoms such as syncope, dyspnea, or chest pain. Continuous monitoring is advisable for symptomatic individuals. Oral and IV antibiotic therapy have been advocated, with IV therapy usually reserved for individuals who have high-degree atrioventricular block or a PR interval on electrocardiogram of greater than 0.3 seconds.

NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS OF LYME DISEASE

The term for central nervous system (CNS) Lyme disease is neuroborreliosis. Neurologic manifestations during the early disseminated stage of the disease may present as meningitis, cranial neuritis (frequently Bell's palsy), radiculoneuritis, radiculoneuropathy or peripheral neuropathy, encephalopathy, mononeuritis multiplex, or a combination of these conditions. Symptoms are characterized by head and neck pain. The diagnosis of neuroborreliosis is determined by the combination of clinical findings with laboratory support provided by the following:
  • Lumbar puncture demonstrating cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) with pleocytosis and elevated protein.
  • Positive CSF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed by Western immunoblot for antibodies to B. burgdorferi.
  • Matching serum samples for antibody production.
  • CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for B. burgdorferi may be warranted if the above studies are not conclusive and the presentation is early in the course of disease.

Subacute encephalopathy can occur months to years after disease onset; symptoms include subtle changes in memory, mood, sleep, or cognition accompanied by fatigue. There are no abnormalities on electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or CSF testing. The symptoms are nonspecific and similar to that of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. The diagnosis of Lyme encephalopathy is best validated with a mental status exam that may help differentiate it from chronic fatigue syndrome or depression. Treatment with IV antibiotics is generally not indicated for affected individuals unless CSF abnormalities are present.

Of greater concern, though rarely occurring, is the development of encephalomyelitis. The symptoms of encephalomyelitis are spastic paraparesis, ataxias, cranial neuropathy, cognitive impairment, and bladder dysfunction. IV antibiotic therapy is suggested when CSF testing is positive for pleocytosis and protein elevation.

LYME ARTHRITIS

A late manifestation of infection is Lyme arthritis. This is characterized by an elevated IgG response to B. burgdorferi and recurrent attacks of oligoarticular arthritis, usually affecting large joints such as the knee. Individuals may be effectively treated with a 30-day course of oral antibiotic therapy. However, caution must be taken to exclude CNS involvement, which would require IV antibiotic treatment. A second four-week course of oral or IV antibiotic therapy may be prescribed for individuals whose arthritis has failed to improve or has worsened. The slow resolution of inflammatory symptoms after the initial treatment with antibiotics should be taken into consideration before initiating retreatment with antimicrobial agents. It is believed that the persistence of symptomatology in these individuals is not related to continued infection but is instead an immune response to the previous infection.

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

SEROLOGIC TESTS
Specific IgM response in acute infection peaks between the third and sixth weeks of the disease process. Specific IgG response develops after months and includes antibodies to a variety of spirochete antigens; these antibodies may persist for months to years. In consideration of these findings, detection of IgG antibodies only indicates exposure, either past or present. Interpretation of serologic tests requires the correlation of the test results concurrently with the individual's signs and symptoms of Lyme disease.

When laboratory testing is indicated, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a two-step method testing for the serologic diagnosis of Lyme disease. The two-step testing consists of an FDA-approved enzyme immunoassay that, if positive or equivocal, is followed by an FDA-approved immunoblot test, commonly known as a "Western blot" test. Results are considered positive only when both the enzyme immunoassay and Western blot are positive:
  • Step one: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): This is a serologic screening test for Lyme disease. Newly developed tests use recombinant or synthetic antigens for improved diagnostic sensitivity. The FDA has approved C6 ELISA when positive or equivocal results are supplemented by testing with a standardized Western blot procedure. The single-step enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using the C6 peptide, has not demonstrated improvements in specificity over the two-tiered testing approach (Branda 2011). Lipsett et al (2016) evaluated C6 EIA in 944 children, of whom 114 had Lyme disease. They found stand-alone C6 EIA testing had lower specificity than two-tiered testing; specificity was increased to 98.6 percent with a supplemental immunoblot. A systematic review of diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease also concluded that stand-alone C6 testing is not recommended over the two-tiered approach due to slightly lower specificity (Sanchez 2016). An ELISA test by itself is not conclusive serologic evidence of Lyme disease. A negative ELISA needs no further testing. All of these tests must be corroborated with the Western immunoblot test and must be compared to objective clinical findings.
  • Step two Western Immunoblot: This is used to identify individuals with positive or indeterminate ELISA results. This test identifies the specific antibody response to several clinically significant antigens of B. burgdorferi. According to CDC criteria, Western immunoblot is considered positive if two of the three most common IgM antibody bands are present, or if five of the ten most frequent IgG antibody bands are present. Because of test variability, the immunoblot test is usually performed in an experienced and quality-controlled laboratory. Comparison titers should be performed on the same day using the same test kit.

LYME IMMUNOBLOT IgG AND IgM
The Lyme ImmunoBlot tests were developed for clinical use by IGeneX as a qualitative assay that detects B. burgdorferi sensu lato specific IgG/IgM antibodies in human serum for the following Borrelia burgdorferi species: B. burgdorferi B31, B. burgdorferi 297, B. californiensis, B. mayonii, B. spielmanii, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. valaisiana. Both of these tests, (Lyme ImmunoBlots IgM and Lyme ImmunoBlots IgG) have not been validated and nor results published in peer-reviewed scientific literature.

POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)
PCR testing detects the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA]) of the Lyme disease bacteria in samples taken from CSF, tissue, or synovial fluid. PCR-based direct detection of B. burgdorferiin CSF samples is typically used in individuals with a short duration (less than 14 days) of neurologic symptoms during the window between exposure and production of detectable antibodies. The detection of the Borrelia spirochete in the CSF is most successful within the first two weeks of infection.

However, PCR testing can be unreliable because it requires amplification of the B. burgdorferi DNA. This amplification places the sample at high risk for extrinsic contamination, which increases the likelihood of a false-positive result. Positive results in the absence of clear clinical indicators or positive serology are not definitive for diagnosis. In addition, PCR testing cannot distinguish between live, infectious spirochetes and noninfectious fragments of dead spirochetes. Finally, the risk of a false-positive result increases if a specimen being tested has low probability of infection. Because of these concerns, the major national laboratories usually contract with well-controlled laboratories to perform these tests.

B. burgdorferi was originally thought to be a single species; however, genotypic analysis has revealed that this group represents three distinct species and genomic groups. Borrelia PCR genotyping also provides information on which of these three major species are found in the specimen tested. Of these, the following have been isolated from individuals with Lyme disease: B. burgdorferi sensu lato, B. garinii, and B. afzelii. PCR-based technology has been used as one step in the genotypic analysis of these genospecies. The prevalence of these different genospecies may vary among populations and may be associated with different clinical manifestations. However, no data were found in the published literature with regard to whether or how knowledge of the genotype or phenotype of B. burgdorferi could be used to improve patient management and outcomes. PCR has the best detection rates for skin biopsies from individuals with EM and for synovial tissue from individuals with Lyme arthritis. PCR-based detection is typically not performed in the urine due to the variable presence of endogenous polymerase inhibitors that affect test sensitivity. However, PCR-based direct detection of B. burgdorferiin the blood may be useful for documenting Lyme carditis when results of serologic studies are equivocal.

CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID (CSF) EVALUATION
CSF evaluation may be performed in an individual with suspected Lyme disease if rarer neurologic symptoms such as encephalomyelitis, cranial neuropathy, and cognitive impairment are present.

Positive CSF findings include all of the following:
  • Pleocytosis
  • Increased protein levels
  • Intrathecal production of B. burgdorferi antibodies in CSF
    • Aside from the standard evaluation of CSF for pleocytosis, protein levels, and glucose levels, numerous tests are available to determine whether anti--B. burgdorferi antibodies are being produced in the CNS. Techniques include a variety of immunoassays, capture assays, and the ELISA test. It is imperative to simultaneously test the serum and CSF to determine whether the antibodies are being produced in the CNS or leaking across the blood-brain barrier. PCR testing can also be used to detect the presence of the spirochete in the CSF.

URINE TESTING
The Lyme urine antigen test (LUAT) is an antigen capture test. Current peer-reviewed literature does not support the utility of the LUAT in the detection of Lyme disease, and a positive value should be regarded as dubious. Also, the CDC and the FDA are aware of commercial laboratories that conduct testing for Lyme disease with assays whose accuracy and clinical usefulness have not been adequately established. These tests include urine antigen tests, whose criteria has not been validated and published in peer-reviewed scientific literature.

SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (SPECT)
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning is a noninvasive radionuclide imaging technique that differs from other radiologic studies in that it provides information on perfusion (functional and metabolic activity) rather than anatomic structures. SPECT has been proposed for the diagnosis of encephalopathy secondary to B. burgdorferi infection; however, current peer-reviewed literature suggests that SPECT scanning alone is insufficient to diagnose Lyme encephalopathy.

T-CELL PROLIFERATIVE ASSAY
T-cell (T-lymphocyte) proliferation assays are difficult to perform and standardize, and their sensitivity is not well-defined. Therefore, they are not usually performed as diagnostic tests.

B LYMPHOCYTE CHEMOATTRACTANT CXCL13
Determination of levels of the B lymphocyte chemoattractant CXCL13 for diagnosis or monitoring treatment has been reported to be elevated in acute neuroborreliosis; thus it is a potential marker for successful treatment. However, clinical studies and outcomes data are limited. Additional research is necessary to determine the true impact of this diagnostic technology.

HUMAN NATURAL KILLER-1 CELLS (HNK1), CLUSTER OF DIFFERENTIATION (CD)57
There have been only limited studies of HNK1 (also known as CD57) cell subsets in the context of bacterial or parasitic infections. Some individuals with reported chronic Lyme disease may have lower proportions of peripheral blood HNK1 (CD57) cells compared to those with acute disease and uninfected controls, and this phenotype was maintained for over ten years in one individual with persistent infection. In contrast, no significant differences in numbers of peripheral blood HNK1 (CD57) cells were noted between individuals reported with "post-Lyme disease syndrome", individuals recovered from Lyme disease, and healthy controls. The suggestion that high frequencies of HNK1 (CD57) cells may be a biomarker of Lyme disease progression has not been adequately established, especially given the potential impact on HNK1 (CD57) cell phenotype of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and other infections. (Nielson 2013). In addition, this available test has not been endorsed by the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention or guidelines from major organizations as a diagnostic test for Lyme disease.

TREATMENT OF LYME DISEASE

ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY
Oral antibiotic therapy is the usual course of treatment for Lyme disease. IV antibiotic therapy is generally indicated only in individuals who have symptoms and laboratory findings consistent with CNS or peripheral neurologic involvement, those who have heart block, or those who have been diagnosed with Lyme arthritis who have not responded to oral antibiotics. IV antibiotic therapy consists of a single two-to-four–week course of ceftriaxone or cefotaxime, both third-generation cephalosporins, penicillin, or chloramphenicol. With the exception of refractory Lyme arthritis, there is insufficient data to suggest that prolonged or repeated courses of IV antibiotics are effective. A repetitive course of IV antibiotic may be necessary for refractory Lyme arthritis. The lack of response should suggest an incorrect diagnosis or a slow resolution of symptoms, which is commonly seen in Lyme disease. In addition, some symptoms (such as Lyme arthritis) may persist after treatment, which could be attributed to various self-sustaining inflammatory mechanisms rather than persistent infection.

There is no current evidence to support the use of antibiotics beyond four weeks in individuals with chronic symptoms after standard, efficacious treatment for Lyme disease.

In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, Berende et al. (2016) assessed longer-term antibiotic therapy for persistent symptoms (musculoskeletal pain, arthritis, arthralgia, neuralgia, sensory disturbances, dysesthesia, neuropsychological disorders, or cognitive disorders, with or without persistent fatigue) attributed to Lyme Disease. Researchers evaluated 281 participants who either had proven case of symptomatic Lyme disease (symptoms temporally related to an erythema migrans rash) or were accompanied by B. burgdorferi IgG or IgM antibodies, as confirmed by immunoblot assay. All participants received open-label ceftriaxone intravenously daily for 14 days, followed by an investigative oral treatment course of either doxycycline (n=86), clarithromycin (n=96) or a placebo (n=98) for 12-weeks. The primary outcome of interest was health-related quality of life (measured by physical component summary score (PCS) of the RAND SF-36 (range between 15 to 61, higher scores indicating higher quality of life), at the end of the treatment (14 weeks). Secondary outcomes assessed were the physical and mental health aspects of health-related quality of life, assessed by subscales of RAND SF-36, and fatigue. SF-36 PCS did not significantly differ across 3 study groups (P=0.69). All of the secondary outcomes failed to differ significantly. This trial suggests longer-term antibiotic treatment (ceftriaxone followed by 12 weeks of either doxycycline or clarithromycin–hydroxychloroquine) did not have additional health-related quality of life benefits beyond those with shorter-term treatment (ceftriaxone followed by placebo).

LYME DISEASE IMMUNIZATION VACCINE

Currently, there is no available vaccine against Lyme disease.
References


Abrams Y. Complications of coinfection with Babesia and Lyme disease after splenectomy. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008;21(1):75-77.

American College of Physicians. Guidelines for laboratory evaluation in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med.1997;127(12):1106-1108.

American College of Rheumatology. Appropriateness of parenteral antibiotic treatment for patients with presumed Lyme disease. A joint statement of the American College of Rheumatology and the Council of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119(6):518.

American Lyme Disease Foundation (ALDF). The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease II, The Banbury Center, Cold Spring Harbor. Emerging views on serodiagnosis. [ALDF website]. Original: 09/09/07. (Revised: 01/05/10). Available at: http://www.aldf.com/2nd-banbury-conference/. Accessed February 6, 2018.

Aucott J, Morrison C, Munoz B, et al. Diagnostic challenges of early Lyme disease: Lessons from a community case series. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:79.

Auwaerter PG. Point: Antibiotic therapy is not the answer for patients with persisting symptoms attributable to lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(2):143-148.

Berende A, ter Hofstede HJ, Vos FJ, et al. Randomized trial of longer-term therapy for symptoms attributed to Lyme disease. N Engl J Med.2016;374(13):1209-1220.

Branda JA, Linskey K, Kim YA, et al. Two-tiered antibody testing for Lyme disease with use of 2 enzyme immunoassays, a whole-cell sonicate enzyme immunoassay followed by a VlsE C6 peptide enzyme immunoassay. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 53(6):541-7.

Bratton RL, Whiteside JW, Hovan MJ, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83(5):566-571.

British Infection Association. The epidemiology, prevention, investigation and treatment of Lyme borreliosis in United Kingdom patients: a position statement by the British Infection Association. J Infect 2011;62(5):329-38.

Buckingham SC. Tick-borne infections in children: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and optimal management strategies. Paediatr Drugs. 2005;7(3):163-176.

Cameron D. Severity of Lyme disease with persistent symptoms. Insights from a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Minerva Med. 2008;99(5):489-496.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Learn about Lyme disease. [CDC website]. Updated 01/19/18. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/. Accessed February 06, 2018.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi).Case definition. [CDC website]. 08/09/17. Available at:https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/lyme-disease/case-definition/2017/. Accessed February 06, 2018.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). Concerns regarding a new culture method for Borrelia burgdorferi not approved for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. [CDC Web site]. 04/18/ 2014. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6315a4.htm?s_cid=mm6315a4_w. Accessed February 06, 2018.

Columbia University Medical Center. Lyme and Tick-Borne Disease Research Center. Lyme diseases: spinal fluid and brain tests. [Columbia University Medical Center website]. Available at: http://www.columbia-lyme.org/patients/ld_spinal_fluid.html. Accessed February 06, 2018.

Critical Needs and Gaps in Understanding: Prevention, Amelioration, and Resolution of Lyme and Other Tick-Borne Diseases: The Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes: Workshop Report 2011. Available online at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21977545; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK57026/. Accessed February 06, 2018.

Dattwyler RJ, Luft BJ, Kunkel MJ, et al. Ceftriaxone compared with doxycycline for the treatment of acute disseminated Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(5):289-294.

DeBiasi RL. A concise critical analysis of serologic testing for the diagnosis of lyme disease. Curr Infect Dis Rep.2014;16(12):450.

Eckman MH, Steere AC, Kalish RA, Pauker SG. Cost effectiveness of oral as compared with intravenous antibiotic therapy for patients with early Lyme disease or Lyme arthritis. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(5):357-363.

Fallon BA, Keilp JG, Corbera KM, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of repeated IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme encephalopathy. Neurology. 2008;70(13):992-1003.

Feder HM Jr, Johnson BJ, O'Connell S, et al. A critical appraisal of "chronic Lyme disease". N Engl J Med. 2007;357(14):1422-1430.

Halperin JJ, Shapiro ED, Logigian E, et al. Practice parameter: treatment of nervous system Lyme disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN). Neurology. 2007;69(1):91-102.

Hsu VM, Patella SJ, Sigal LH. “Chronic Lyme disease” as the incorrect diagnosis in patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum. 1993;36(11):1493-1500.

Hu L. Diagnosis of Lyme disease. Up to Date. [Up to Date Web site]. 05/09/2017. Available at: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-of-lyme-disease?source=see_link#H4. [via subscription only]. Accessed February 06, 2018.

Hytonen J, Kortela E, Waris M, et al. CXCL13 and neopterin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis and other diseases that cause neuroinflammation. J Neuroinflammation. 2014;11:103.

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Lyme Disease Review Panel Hearing WEBCAST. July 30, 2009, 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. Available at: http://www.idsociety.org/Lyme/. Accessed February 06, 2018.

Kaplan RF, Trevino RP, Johnson GM, et al. Cognitive function in post-treatment Lyme disease: do additional antibiotics help? Neurology. 2003;60(12):1916-1922.

Klempner MS, Hu LT, Evans J, et al. Two controlled trials of antibiotic therapy in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(2):85-92.

Krupp LB, Hyman LG, Grimson R, et al. Study and treatment of post Lyme disease (STOP-LD): a randomized double masked clinical trial. Neurology. 2003;60(12):1923-1930.

Lantos PM, Auwaerter PG, Wormser GP. A systematic review of Borrelia burgdorferi morphologic variants does not support a role in chronic Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2013.

Lantos PM, Auwaerter PG, Wormser GP. A systematic review of Borrelia burgdorferi morphologic variants does not support a role in chronic Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis.
2014;58(5):663-671.

Lantos PM, Charini WA, Medoff G, et al. Final report of the Lyme disease review panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51(1):1-5.

Lebech AM, Hansen K, Brandrup F, et al. Diagnostic value of PCR for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in clinical specimens from patients with erythema migrans and Lyme neuroborreliosis. Mol Diagn. 2000;5(2):139-150.

Lipsett SC, Branda JA, McAdam AJ, et al. Evaluation of the C6 Lyme Enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of lyme disease in children and adolescents. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(7):922-928.

Lyme Disease Association (LDA). Official word on IDSA guidelines' removal from NGC. [LDA Web site]. 2016. Available at:https://www.lymediseaseassociation.org/index.php/lda-news-a-updates/1456-official-word-on-idsa-guidelines-removal-from-ngc. Accessed February 06, 2018.

Marques A. Chronic Lyme disease: a review. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22(2):341-360.
Marques A, Brown MR, Fleisher TA. Natural killer cell counts are not different between patients with post-Lyme disease syndrome and controls. Clin Vaccine Immunol .2009;16(8):1249–5010.

Mygland A, Ljostad U, Fingerle V, et al. EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and management of European Lyme neuroborreliosis. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17(1):8-16, e1-4.

Nau R, Christen HJ, Eiffert H. Lyme disease--current state of knowledge. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009;106(5):72-81.

Nielsen CM, White MJ, Goodier MR, et al. Functional Significance of CD57 expression of human NK cells and relevance to disease. Front Immunol. 2013;4:422.

Oksi J, Marjamäki M, Nikoskelainen J, Viljanen MK. Borrelia burgdorferi detected by culture and PCR in clinical relapse of disseminated Lyme borreliosis. Ann Med. 1999;31(3):225-232.

Oski J, Nikoskelainen J, Hiekkanen H, et al. Duration of antibiotic treatment in disseminated Lyme borreliosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;26(8):571-581.

Pachner AR. Early disseminated Lyme disease: Lyme meningitis. Am J Med. 1995;98(4A):30S-43S.

Pritt BS, Mead PS, Johnson DK, et al. Identification of a novel pathogenic Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. Feb 5 2016.

Sanchez E, Vannier E, Wormser GP, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: a review. JAMA. 2016;315(16):1767-1777.

Sigal LH. Current recommendations for the treatment of Lyme disease. Drugs. 1992;43(5):683-699.

Sigal LH. Early disseminated Lyme disease: cardiac manifestations. Am J Med. 1995;98(4A):25S-29S.

Situm M, Poje G, Grahovac B, et al. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis by polymerase chain reaction. Clin Dermatol. 2002;20(2):147-155.

Steere AC. Diagnosis and treatment of Lyme arthritis. Med Clin North Am. 1997;81(1):179-194.

Steere AC. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(2):115-125.

Steere AC, Taylor E, McHugh GL et al. The overdiagnosis of Lyme disease. JAMA.1993; 269(14):1812-6.

Stricker RB, Burrascano J, Winger E. Longterm decrease in the CD57 lymphocyte subset in a patient with chronic Lyme disease. Ann Agric Environ Med.2002; 9(1):111–113.

Tugwell P, Dennis DT, Weinstein A, et al. Laboratory evaluation in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med. 1997; 127(12):1109-1123.

Wilske B, Fingerle V, Schulte-Spechtel U. Microbiological and serological diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;49(1):13-21.

Wormser GP. Clinical practice. Early Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(26):2794-2801.

Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, et al. The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(9):1089-1134.

Wormser GP, Ramanathan R, Nowakowski J, et al. Duration of antibiotic therapy for early Lyme disease. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(9):697-704.





Coding

Inclusion of a code in this table does not imply reimbursement. Eligibility, benefits, limitations, exclusions, precertification/referral requirements, provider contracts, and Company policies apply.

The codes listed below are updated on a regular basis, in accordance with nationally accepted coding guidelines. Therefore, this policy applies to any and all future applicable coding changes, revisions, or updates.

In order to ensure optimal reimbursement, all health care services, devices, and pharmaceuticals should be reported using the billing codes and modifiers that most accurately represent the services rendered, unless otherwise directed by the Company.

The Coding Table lists any CPT, ICD-9, ICD-10, and HCPCS billing codes related only to the specific policy in which they appear.

CPT Procedure Code Number(s)

MEDICALLY NECESSARY

THE FOLLOWING CODES ARE USED TO REPRESENT SEROLOGIC TESTS FOR LYME DISEASE

86617, 86618

THE FOLLOWING CODE IS USED TO REPRESENT POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) AMPLIFIED PROBE TECHNIQUE, FOR LYME DISEASE

87476

THE FOLLOWING CODES ARE USED TO TREATMENT FOR LYME DISEASE

96365, 96366, 96367, 96368, 99601, 99602

EXPERIMENTAL/INVESTIGATIONAL

THE FOLLOWING CODES ARE USED TO REPRESENT POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)

87475

THE FOLLOWING CODES ARE USED TO REPRESENT HNK1(CD57) PROFILE

86356, 86357

THE FOLLOWING CODE IS USED TO REPRESENT LYME URINE ANTIGEN TEST (LUAT)
81099

THE FOLLOWING CODES ARE USED TO REPRESENT LYME IMMUNOBLOT IgG AND IgM TEST

0041U, 0042U


Professional and outpatient claims with a date of service on or before September 30, 2015, must be billed using ICD-9 codes. Professional and outpatient claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015, must be billed using ICD-10 codes.

Facility/Institutional inpatient claims with a date of discharge on or before September 30, 2015, must be billed with ICD-9 codes. Facility/Institutional inpatient claims with a date of discharge on or after October 1, 2015, must be billed with ICD-10 codes.


ICD - 10 Procedure Code Number(s)

N/A




Professional and outpatient claims with a date of service on or before September 30, 2015, must be billed using ICD-9 codes. Professional and outpatient claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015, must be billed using ICD-10 codes.

Facility/Institutional inpatient claims with a date of discharge on or before September 30, 2015, must be billed with ICD-9 codes. Facility/Institutional inpatient claims with a date of discharge on or after October 1, 2015, must be billed with ICD-10 codes.


ICD -10 Diagnosis Code Number(s)

A69.20 Lyme disease, unspecified

A69.21 Meningitis due to Lyme disease

A69.22 Other neurologic disorders in Lyme disease

A69.23 Arthritis due to Lyme disease

A69.29 Other conditions associated with Lyme disease



HCPCS Level II Code Number(s)

S9494 Home infusion therapy, antibiotic, antiviral, or antifungal therapy; administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment (drugs and nursing visits coded separately), per diem (do not use this code with home infusion codes for hourly dosing schedules S9497-S9504)


S9504 Home infusion therapy, antibiotic, antiviral, or antifungal; once every 4 hours; administrative services, professional pharmacy services, care coordination, and all necessary supplies and equipment (drugs and nursing visits coded separately), per diem



Revenue Code Number(s)

N/A

Coding and Billing Requirements



Policy History

06.02.01i
05/21/2018This policy has undergone a routine review, and the following diagnosis and procedure codes have been added to the policy: 96365, 96366, 96367, 96368, 99601, 99602, 0041U, 0042U.

The following HCPCS codes have been added to the policy, S9494, S9504.

Policy language was added to include diagnostic services that are Medically Necessary, the intent of the policy remains unchanged.

06.02.01h
01/01/2018This policy has been identified for the CPT code update, effective 01/01/2018.

The following CPT code has been termed from this policy: 87477


Effective 10/05/2017 this policy has been updated to the new policy template format.


Version Effective Date: 05/21/2018
Version Issued Date: 05/21/2018
Version Reissued Date: N/A

Connect with Us        


© 2017 Independence Blue Cross.
Independence Blue Cross is an independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association, serving the health insurance needs of Philadelphia and southeastern Pennsylvania.