Notification



Notification Issue Date:



Medical Policy Bulletin


Title:Computer-Assisted Musculoskeletal Surgical Navigational Orthopedic Procedure

Policy #:11.14.17d

This policy is applicable to the Company’s commercial products only. Policies that are applicable to the Company’s Medicare Advantage products are accessible via a separate Medicare Advantage policy database.


The Company makes decisions on coverage based on Policy Bulletins, benefit plan documents, and the member’s medical history and condition. Benefits may vary based on contract, and individual member benefits must be verified. The Company determines medical necessity only if the benefit exists and no contract exclusions are applicable.

When services can be administered in various settings, the Company reserves the right to reimburse only those services that are furnished in the most appropriate and cost-effective setting that is appropriate to the member’s medical needs and condition. This decision is based on the member’s current medical condition and any required monitoring or additional services that may coincide with the delivery of this service.

This Medical Policy Bulletin document describes the status of medical technology at the time the document was developed. Since that time, new technology may have emerged or new medical literature may have been published. This Medical Policy Bulletin will be reviewed regularly and be updated as scientific and medical literature becomes available. For more information on how Medical Policy Bulletins are developed, go to the About This Site section of this Medical Policy Web site.



Policy

Coverage is subject to the terms, conditions, and limitations of the member's contract.

Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several surgical navigational systems used in computer-assisted musculoskeletal surgical navigational orthopedic procedures, the Company has determined that the safety and/or the effectiveness of this procedure cannot be established by review of the available published peer-reviewed literature. Therefore, computer-assisted musculoskeletal surgical navigational orthopedic procedures are considered experimental/investigational by the Company and not covered.
Guidelines

The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for computer-assisted musculoskeletal surgical navigational orthopedic procedures are based on how data acquisition is acquired (CPT 0054T fluoroscopic, 0055T MRI/CT).

BENEFIT APPLICATION

Subject to the terms and conditions of the applicable benefit contract, a computer-assisted musculoskeletal surgical navigational orthopedic procedure is not eligible for payment under the medical benefits of the Company’s products because the service is considered experimental/investigational and, therefore, not covered. Services that are experimental/investigational are a benefit contract exclusion for all products of the Company. Therefore, they are not eligible for reimbursement consideration

US FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA)

There are numerous devices approved by the FDA for surgical navigational systems. Examples of such navigational systems are the GE OEC Fluorostar™ and the OEC Olympus Mobile Fluoroscopy System with Integrated Navigation.

Description

Computer-assisted navigational orthopedic procedures use navigational systems during musculoskeletal surgery to provide additional information and to further integrate preoperative planning with how the surgery is being performed. Navigational systems are typically used to improve placement and positioning of a prosthetic and/or surgical instrument during the procedure. Computer-assisted navigational orthopedic procedures can also be used as an adjunct to fixation of pelvic, acetabular, or femoral fractures, and as an adjunct to hip or knee arthroplasty procedures.

The navigational systems require three steps to gather information: data acquisition, registration, and tracking. Data acquisition is obtained in one of three ways: fluoroscopic imaging, computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or through an imageless system. The data is then used for registration and tracking. Registration refers to how the images (e.g., X-rays, CT, MRI) relate to the anatomical position in the surgical field. Surface-matching techniques are often used for matching shapes of bones before surgery to surface data points during surgery. Tracking refers to the sensor and measurement devices that report the position and orientation of the instruments and/or the placement and orientation of the implants relative to the bone anatomy during surgery.

PEER-REVIEWED LITERATURE

In a meta-analysis, Bauwens et al. (2007) evaluated the available peer-reviewed literature on computer-navigated knee arthroplasties. Thirty-three studies, including 11 randomized trials were reviewed, representing 3,423 individuals with a mean age of 67.3 years. The authors noted that there was no evidence of publication bias, though there was strong statistical heterogeneity in the studies. The alignment of the mechanical axes did not differ between the navigated or conventional surgery groups, though participants managed with navigated surgery had a lower risk of malalignment at critical thresholds of greater than 3 degrees. The authors concluded that computer-navigated knee replacement offered few advantages over conventional surgery and that the clinical benefits were unclear and remained to be determined on a larger scale.

In a prospective randomized controlled trial, Mueffels et al. (2012) evaluated the effectiveness of computer-assisted anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. One hundred individuals eligible for ACL reconstruction with a transtibial technique were randomized to either conventional or computer-navigated surgery. Measurement of femoral and tibial tunnel placement with use of three-dimensional computed tomography was used as the primary outcome measurement. The placement of either the femoral or tibial tunnels did not have a statistically significant difference between the groups. The authors concluded that there was no significant difference in either the accuracy or precision of tunnel placement between conventional and computer-navigated ACL reconstruction.

In an updated Cochrane systematic review, Eggerding et al. (2014) evaluated the effectiveness of computer-navigated surgery for knee ligament reconstruction. Five randomized controlled trials were included, representing 366 participants. All studies involved ACL reconstructions. The authors found moderate-quality evidence of no clinically relevant difference between computer-navigated and conventional surgery when reviewing the International Knee Documentation Committee subjective scores (i.e., self-reported measure of knee function). Pooled data from two of the studies showed a small but clinically irrelevant difference favoring computer-navigated surgery. The authors concluded that based on the available evidence, they were unable to demonstrate a favorable effect of computer-navigated surgery for cruciate ligament reconstructions of the knee when compared to conventional reconstructions.

SUMMARY

Computer-assisted navigation systems used in musculoskeletal surgical orthopedic procedures have been proposed to facilitate alignment and reduce the chance for malposition. While there are numerous devices approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for surgical navigational systems, these systems are typically only subject to 510(k) approval because they serve as an adjunct to surgery rather than actually performing the surgery. In addition, the available published peer-reviewed literature has not demonstrated improved health outcomes for individuals.
References


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Eggerding V, Reijman M, Scholten RJ, et al. Computer-assisted surgery for knee ligament reconstruction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;8:CD007601.

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Hoffart HE, Langenstein E, Vasak N. A prospective study comparing the functional outcome of computer-assisted and conventional total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012;94(2):194-9.

Hofstetter R, Slomczykowski M, Krettek C et al. Computer-assisted fluoroscopy-based reduction of femoral fractures and antetorsion correction. Comput Aided Surg. 2000; 5(5):311-325.

Hoppe S, Mainzer JD, Frauchiger L, et al. More accurate component alignment in navigated total knee arthroplasty has no clinical benefit at 5-year follow-up. Acta Orthop. 2012;83(6):629-33.

Hsieh PH, Chang YH, Shih CH. Image-guided periacetabular osteotomy: computer-assisted navigation compared with the conventional technique: a randomized study of 36 patients followed for 2 years. Acta Orthop. 2006;77(4):591-597.

Huang NF, Dowsey MM, Ee E et al. Coronal alignment correlates with outcome after total knee arthroplasty: five-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. J Arthroplasty. 2012;27(9):1737-41.

Ishida K, Matsumoto T, Tsumura N, et al. Mid-term outcomes of computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19(7):1107-1112.

Jenny JY, Miehlke RK, Giurea A. Learning curve in navigated total knee replacement. A multi-centre study comparing experienced and beginner centres. Knee. 2008; 15(2):80-84.

Kim SJ, MacDonald M, Hernandez J, Wixson RL. Computer assisted navigation in total knee arthroplasty: improved coronal alignment. J Arthroplasty. 2005;20(7 Suppl 3):123-131.

Kim YH, Kim JS, Choi Y, et al. Computer-assisted surgical navigation does not improve the alignment and orientation of the components in total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91(1):14-9.

Kim YH, Park JW, Kim JS. Computer-navigated versus conventional total knee arthroplasty a prospective randomized trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(22):2017-24.

Lass R, Kubista B, Olischar B, et al. Total hip arthroplasty using imageless computer-assisted hip navigation: a prospective randomized study. J Arthroplasty. 2014;29(4):786-791.

Liebergall M, Ben-David D, Weil Y, Peyser A, Mosheiff R. Computerized navigation for the internal fixation of femoral neck fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88(8):1748-1754.

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Manzotti A, Cerveri P, De Momi E, et al. Does computer-assisted surgery benefit leg length restoration in total hip replacement? Navigation versus conventional freehand. Int Orthop. 2011;35(1):19-24.

Matziolis G, Krocker D, Weiss U, et al. A prospective, randomized study of computer-assisted and conventional total knee arthroplasty: three-dimensional evaluation of implant alignment and rotation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:236-243.

Mauch F, Apic G, Becker U, Bauer G. Differences in the placement of the tibial tunnel during reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with and without computer-assisted navigation. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(11):1824-1832.

Meuffels DE, Reijman M, Scholten RJ, et al. Computer assisted surgery for knee ligament reconstruction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; (6):CD007601.

Meuffels DE, Reijman M, Verhaar JA. Computer-assisted surgery is not more accurate or precise than conventional arthroscopic ACL reconstruction: a prospective randomized clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012; 94(17):1538-1545.

Pang HN, Yeo SJ, Chong HC, et al. Computer-assisted gap balancing technique improves outcome in total knee arthroplasty, compared with conventional measured resection technique. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19(9):1496-503.

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Coding

Inclusion of a code in this table does not imply reimbursement. Eligibility, benefits, limitations, exclusions, precertification/referral requirements, provider contracts, and Company policies apply.

The codes listed below are updated on a regular basis, in accordance with nationally accepted coding guidelines. Therefore, this policy applies to any and all future applicable coding changes, revisions, or updates.

In order to ensure optimal reimbursement, all health care services, devices, and pharmaceuticals should be reported using the billing codes and modifiers that most accurately represent the services rendered, unless otherwise directed by the Company.

The Coding Table lists any CPT, ICD-9, ICD-10, and HCPCS billing codes related only to the specific policy in which they appear.

CPT Procedure Code Number(s)

0054T, 0055T, 0396T, 20985


Professional and outpatient claims with a date of service on or before September 30, 2015, must be billed using ICD-9 codes. Professional and outpatient claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015, must be billed using ICD-10 codes.

Facility/Institutional inpatient claims with a date of discharge on or before September 30, 2015, must be billed with ICD-9 codes. Facility/Institutional inpatient claims with a date of discharge on or after October 1, 2015, must be billed with ICD-10 codes.


ICD - 10 Procedure Code Number(s)

N/A


Professional and outpatient claims with a date of service on or before September 30, 2015, must be billed using ICD-9 codes. Professional and outpatient claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015, must be billed using ICD-10 codes.

Facility/Institutional inpatient claims with a date of discharge on or before September 30, 2015, must be billed with ICD-9 codes. Facility/Institutional inpatient claims with a date of discharge on or after October 1, 2015, must be billed with ICD-10 codes.


ICD -10 Diagnosis Code Number(s)

This service is experimental/investigational for all diagnoses.


HCPCS Level II Code Number(s)

N/A


Revenue Code Number(s)

N/A

Coding and Billing Requirements


Cross References


Policy History

Revisions from 11.14.17d:
04/25/2018The policy has been reviewed and reissued to communicate the Company's continuing position on Computer-Assisted Musculoskeletal Surgical Navigational Orthopedic Procedure.


Effective 10/05/2017 this policy has been updated to the new policy template format.
Version Effective Date: 01/01/2016
Version Issued Date: 12/31/2015
Version Reissued Date: 04/25/2018

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